Each group, team, class, organization or composition of people has a number of characteristic stages of development. Both as a teacher and as a manager, it is important to know in which developmentphase the group is located. You can then take into account the dynamics in a group. Both when it comes to behavior, leadership, rules or agreements, but also what you can expect from the group.

We call these the phases of development of Tuckman. Below I have posted an overview, what that looks like:


  1. Forming, the new team members orient themselves. There is aclear view of tasks and expectations , and people are mainly hesitant
  2. Storming, groups arise about who determines what. Power struggles etc. take place here and here the first (informal) structures of the team are formed
  3. Norming, it is determined how the structures are located. Who is the (formal) leader, what rules do we find acceptable as a group
  4. Performing, the team starts performing. Back and forth people know what to expect and the team members are well attuned to each other
  5. Adjusting, the team ends and falls apart. The team ceases to exist

These are, briefly, the phases in which a group can find itself.

It is useful to compare the requirements and tasks that are set for the team with the phase that the team is in. After all, if these do not fit well, then there is a good chance that the team will not be able to perform the tasks well or sufficiently. Which may lead to frustration and friction through which energy leaks out.


Together you are a team. And if you’re together a little longer, it seems like you’re in the performing phase. Everyone knows what the intention is, and the tasks and assignments are well tailored to the capabilities of the team.

However, if there are changes to the team. A team member leaves, people take over shifts (care), new team members join, then the cycle starts again from scratch. With every change in the team, the team process starts again from forming.


Becoming aware of where you are in the phase n of Tuckman, dat is the change that is needed. Even with the smallest change in a team, you have to take this into account. Also think of shifting tasks, new team members, other workplaces everything that affects the team can start this cycle.

It’s important to realize that. And that the team then needs to go through the phases first and that you take that into account in the tax.

Preferably proactively. After all, if you know in advance which phase the team is in and what expectations belong to it, you can take measures in advance to limit the impact.


Because you take this into account in advance, you may be inclined to:


– right later

– not at all

Make changes to the group structure.

Because you are more aware of the effect on the group dynamics, you can make decisions that are more in line with what the group is currently capable of.

That’s the growth.


Thinking well in advance can prevent a lot of stress. Especially among the members of the team it inspires a lot of confidence that the management is paying attention to this.

You can prevent a lot of frustration, friction and therefore energy loss here


Be aware of Tuckman’s phases and the team’s behavior. And adjust the taxaccordingly.